The IAB’s VPAID standard for video advertising – which is layered onto VAST – enables video players and ad units to communicate with one another. It also enables ‘executable ads’ i.e. ads that require software logic to be executed as part of the ad’s playback. The original vision was that we would have a standard that would provide richer, more interactive ads and to collect ad playback and interaction information. However, Ari Paparo, CEO of Beeswax and the original designer of the VAST standard, says he believes that VPAID is essentially a black box that allows buyers to introduce additional auctions and waterfalls, while the fact that it’s Flash-based makes it vulnerable to ad-blockers.